Mobile phone radiation and health concerns have been raised, especially following the enormous increase in the use of wireless mobile telephony throughout the world (as of August 2005, there were more than 2 billion users worldwide). This is because mobile phones use electromagnetic waves in the microwave range. These concerns have induced a large body of research (both epidemiological and experimental, in non-human animals as well as in humans). Concerns about effects on health have also been raised regarding other digital wireless systems, such as data communication networks.
The World Health Organization has concluded that serious health effects (e.g. cancer) are very unlikely to be caused by cellular phones or their base stations, and expects to make recommendations about mobile phones in 2007–08.
However, some nations’ radiation advisory authorities, including those of Austria, Germany, and Sweden, recommend their citizens to minimize radiation. Examples of recommendations are:
* Use hands-free to decrease the radiation to the head.
* Keep the mobile phone away from the body.
* Do not telephone in a car without an external antenna.
However, the use of “hands-free” was not recommended by the British Consumers’ Association in a statement in November 2000.
* 1 Health hazards of handsets
o 1.1 Thermal effects
o 1.2 Non-thermal effects
o 1.3 Genotoxic effects
o 1.4 Mobile phones and cancer
o 1.5 Electrical sensitivity
* 1 电话听筒的健康威胁
* 2 Health hazards of base stations
* 2 基站对于健康的威胁
* 3 Occupational health hazards
* 3 职业健康危害
* 4 Safety standards and licensing
* 4 安全标准和许可制度
* 5 Lawsuits
* 5 诉讼
* 6 Precautionary principle
* 6 预警原则
Health hazards of handsets
Calculated specific absorbed radiation (SAR) distribution in an anatomical model of head next to a 125 mW dipole antenna. Peak SAR is 9.5 W/kg over 1 mg, whole head average is 0.008 W/kg. (USAF/AFRL).
Part of the radio waves emitted by a mobile telephone handset are absorbed by the human head. The radio waves emitted by a GSM handset, can have a peak power of 2 watts, and a US analog phone had a maximum transmit power of 3.6 watts. Other digital mobile technologies, such as CDMA and TDMA, use lower output power, typically below 1 watt. The maximum power output from a mobile phone is regulated by the mobile phone standard it is following and by the regulatory agencies in each country. In most systems the cellphone and the base station check reception quality and signal strength and the power level is increased or decreased automatically, within a certain span, to accommodate for different situations such as inside or outside of buildings and vehicles.
The rate at which radiation is absorbed by the human body is measured by the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR), and its maximum levels for modern handsets have been set by governmental regulating agencies in many countries. In the USA, the FCC has set a SAR limit of 1.6 W/kg, averaged over a volume of 1 gram of tissue, for the head. In Europe, the limit is 2 W/kg, averaged over a volume of 10 grams of tissue. SAR values are heavily dependent on the size of the averaging volume. Without information about the averaging volume used comparisons between different measurements can not be made. Thus, the European 10-gram ratings should be compared among themselves, and the American 1-gram ratings should only be compared among themselves.
辐射被人体吸收的速率，在许多国家的政府 机构设定为手机为最高标准。 在美国，联邦电信委员会（FCC）已经把吸收率设定为1.6W/kg，平均超过1克的头部组织。在欧洲的限定是2W/kg, 超过10克的组织单位。SAR值非常依赖于平均单位体积的大小。离开平均单位体积的信息进行的比较，不能进行测量。因此，因此，欧洲的10克重的SAR应 该相互间进行比较，以及美国1克SAR应该只是在它们之间比较。
Microscope photographs of lenses incubated in organ culture conditions for 12 days. Right frame shows Control lens with no damage. Bottom frame demonstrates the effect of microwave radiation on bovine lens sutures for a total exposure of 192 cycles (1.1 GHz, 2.22 mW). Each cycle lasts 50 min followed by 10 min pause. In the absence of microwave radiation, the bubbles are generated by temperature increase to 39.5 °C during 4 h; see left frame. Credit: IsraCast Technology News 
透镜的显微镜照片在 器官培养条件孵化了12天。 右边显示的是在没有危害下的控制镜片。下面显示的是微波辐射的作用对192个周期总曝光的迟钝的透镜集合(1.1GHz, 2.22mW)。每个周期在10分钟暂停后持续50分钟。在没有微波辐射下，泡泡在4小时中温度增加到39.5度， 见左边。
One well-understood effect of microwave radiation is dielectric heating, in which any dielectric material (such as living tissue) is heated by rotations of polar molecules induced by the electromagnetic field. In the case of a person using a cell phone, most of the heating effect will occur at the surface of the head, causing its temperature to increase by a fraction of a degree. In this case, the level of temperature increase is an order of magnitude less than that obtained during the exposure of the head to direct sunlight. The brain’s blood circulation is capable of disposing of excess heat by increasing local blood flow. However, the cornea of the eye does not have this temperature regulation mechanism. Premature cataracts are known as an occupational disease of engineers who work on high power radio transmitters at similar frequencies. Premature cataracts however, have not been linked with cell phone use, possibly because of the lower power output of mobile phones.
一个众所周知的微波辐射的作用是非传 导加热，所有电介质材料(例如生存组织)被电磁场导致的两极分子循环加热。 在人使用手机的大多数情况下，大多数热效应将发生在头的表面，造成它的温度由一小部分增加。 在这种情况下，温度增量的水平比在头直接暴露于阳光下的期间获得的数量级较少。
It has been claimed that some parts of the human head are more sensitive to damage from increases in temperature, particularly in anatomical structures with poor vasculature, such as nerve fibers. A Swedish scientific team at the Karolinska Institute conducted an epidemiological study that suggested that regular use of a mobile phone over a decade or more was associated with an increased risk of acoustic neuroma, a type of benign brain tumor. The increase was not noted in those who had used phones for fewer than 10 years.
The communications protocols used by mobile phones often result in low-frequency pulsing of the carrier signal.
Some researchers have argued that so-called “non-thermal effects” could be reinterpreted as a normal cellular response to an increase in temperature. The noted German biophysicist Roland Glaser, for example, has argued that there are several thermoreceptor molecules in cells, and that they activate a cascade of second and third messenger systems, gene expression mechanisms and production of heat shock proteins in order to defend the cell against metabolic cell stress caused by heat. The increases in temperature that cause these changes are too small to be detected by studies such as REFLEX, which base their whole argument on the apparent stability of thermal equilibrium in their cell cultures.
一些研究者认为，那些所谓的”非热效应” ，可以重新定义为在升高的温度中的正常的细胞反应。著名的德国生物学家Roland Glaser通过实验认为在细胞中一些感热体分子，他们激活热震动蛋白质的第二和第三信息系统、基因表达机制和生产的热休克蛋白，以维护对细胞代谢细胞应 激所造成的热量。热增加所造成的改变太小了以至于不能被研究发现，例如对于潜在危害的风险评估（REFLEX），基于培养的细胞的热平衡的表面稳定的整体 理论。
Swedish researchers from the University Lund, Salford, Brun, Perrson, Eberhardt and Malmgren, have studied the effects of microwave radiation on the rat brain. They found a leakage of albumin into brain via a permeated blood-brain barrier.
来自LUND大学的瑞典研究者Salford, Brun, Perrson, Eberhardt and Malmgren,已经研究微波辐射对于老鼠大脑的影响。他们发现白蛋白通过渗透脑血阻隔进入大脑。
Research from Greece towards the end of 2006 found a direct causal relationship between mobile phone radiation and DNA damage. In December 2004 a pan-European study named REFLEX (Risk Evaluation of Potential Environmental Hazards from Low Energy Electromagnetic Field (EMF) Exposure Using Sensitive in vitro Methods), involving 12 collaborating laboratories in several countries showed some compelling evidence of DNA damage of cells in in-vitro cultures, when exposed between 0.3 to 2 watts/kg, whole-sample average. There were indications, but not rigorous evidence of other cell changes, including damage to chromosomes, alterations in the activity of certain genes and a boosted rate of cell division.
Mobile phones and cancer
In 2006 a large Danish study about the connection between mobile phone use and cancer incidence was published. It followed over 420,000 Danish citizens over 20 years and showed no increased risk of cancer. The German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) consider this report as inconclusive. 
In order to investigate the risk of cancer for the mobile phone user, a cooperative project between 13 countries has been launched called INTERPHONE. The idea is that cancers need time to develop so only studies over 10 years are of interest.
The following studies of long time exposure have been published:
* A Danish study (2004) that took place over 10 years and found no evidence to support a link. 
* A Swedish study (2005) that draws the conclusion that “the data do not support the hypothesis that mobile phone use is related to an increased risk of glioma or meningioma.”
* A British study (2005) that draws the conclusion that “The study suggests that there is no substantial risk of acoustic neuroma in the first decade after starting mobile phone use. However, an increase in risk after longer term use or after a longer lag period could not be ruled out.”
* 英国的研究得到结论是“研究指出在第一个十年的在开始移动电话用途以后没有产生听觉神经瘤的实质的风险。 然而，在长期使用后不排除对于肿瘤产生的风险增加。”
* A German study (2006) that states “In conclusion, no overall increased risk of glioma or meningioma was observed among these cellular phone users; however, for long-term cellular phone users, results need to be confirmed before firm conclusions can be drawn.”
* A joint study that draws the conclusion that “Although our results overall do not indicate an increased risk of glioma in relation to mobile phone use, the possible risk in the most heavily exposed part of the brain with long-term use needs to be explored further before firm conclusions can be drawn.”
Other studies on cancer and mobile phones are:
* Tumour risk associated with use of cellular telephones or cordless desktop telephones, that states: “We found for all studied phone types an increased risk for brain tumours, mainly acoustic neuroma and malignant brain tumours”.
* A Swedish study (2004) concludes: “Our findings do not indicate an increased risk of acoustic neuroma related to short-term mobile phone use after a short latency period. However, our data suggest an increased risk of acoustic neuroma associated with mobile phone use of at least 10 years’ duration.”.
10^ Cellular Telephone Use and Risk of Acoustic Neuroma Comments on the Danish cohort study on mobile phones
12^ Cellular Telephone Use and Risk of Acoustic Neuroma “Cellular Telephone Use and Cancer Risk: Update of a Nationwide Danish Cohort”, J. Schuz et.al.
13^ American Journal of Epidemiology 2005 161(6):526-535; doi:10.1093/aje/kwi091 (2005). Long-Term Mobile Phone Use and Brain Tumor Risk”. Stefan Lönn, Anders Ahlbom, Per Hall, Maria Feychting
14^ Br J Cancer. 2005 October 3;93(7):842-8. Mobile phone use and risk of acoustic neuroma: results of the Interphone case-control study in five North European countries. Schoemaker MJ, Swerdlow AJ, Ahlbom A, Auvinen A, Blaasaas KG, Cardis E, Christensen HC, Feychting M, Hepworth SJ, Johansen C, Klaeboe L, Lonn S, McKinney PA, Muir K, Raitanen J, Salminen T, Thomsen J, Tynes T
15^ American Journal of Epidemiology, doi:10.1093/aje/kwj068 (2006). “Cellular Phones, Cordless Phones, and the Risks of Glioma and Meningioma (Interphone Study Group, Germany) Joachim Schüz, Eva Böhler, Gabriele Berg, Brigitte Schlehofer, Iris Hettinger, Klaus Schlaefer, Jürgen Wahrendorf, Katharina Kunna-Grass, and Maria Blettner
17^ Tumour risk associated with use of cellular telephones or cordless desktop telephones. L. Hardell, K. Hansson-Mild, M. Carlberg, F. Söderqvist
18^ Lönn, S; Ahlbom, A.; Hall, P.; Feychting, M. (November, 2004). “Mobile phone use and the risk of acoustic neuroma” (in English). Epidemiology 15 (6): 653–659. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISSN 1044-3983. PMID 15475713. OCLC 44996510. doi:10.1097/01.ede.0000142519.00772.bf. Retrieved on 2008–01-08. “Conclusions: Our findings do not indicate an increased risk of acoustic neuroma related to short-term mobile phone use after a short latency period. However, our data suggest an increased risk of acoustic neuroma associated with mobile phone use of at least 10 years’ duration.”